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- ✓ Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah played a crucial role in the years 1916-1947 to help Muslims regain their lost glory. Moreover, he, fortunately, laid the foundation of a separate state and envisioned to force a political, democratic set-up in the country. Besides, he incurred lots of problems, relating to the newly born state, whilst his tenure as the governor-general.
2- What was the situation of the then Muslims of the subcontinent?
- ✓ suffering miserable conditions after the war of 1857
- ✓ Incurring social and economic disparities
- ✓ Depriving of the constitutional rights
- ✓ Getting ignored by the Indian National Congress
3- What role did he play in the years 1916-1947 for the rise of Muslims?
- ✓ Initiated the Lucknow Pact in 1916
- ✓ Resigned from the membership of the Indian National Congress in 1920
- ✓ presented his fourteen points against the Nehru report in 1929
- ✓ Restored Muslim motivation after the 1937 elections
- ✓ Wrote his only article “ Time and Tide” for Muslim rights in 1040
- ✓ Addressed a historic speech at the Lahore resolution
- ✓ Made the Muslim League won the majority of seats in the 1945 election
- ✓ Lead Muslim towards a separate state in 1947
4- Which political system did Quaid Azam envision for Pakistan?
- ✓ wanting to establish an Islamic democratic state
- ✓ seeking a state assuring social, and economic justice and the rights of minorities
5- What challenges did he incur during his tenure as the Governor-General?
- ✓ Managing the problems of refugees influx
- ✓ Resolving the Economic issues
- ✓ Addressing the administrative crisis
- ✓ Dealing with the unequal division of the military forces
6- Critical analysis
Answer to the question
The strenuous and constant efforts of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah have genuinely proven him as a beacon for the then Muslims of the sub-continent since he led them out of all the darkness into the light. In fact, he played a very crucial role between the years 1916-1947 for the uplift of the then-Indian Muslims. Moreover, Quaid-e-Azam was an adamant believer of the Hindu-Muslim unity earlier, which caused him to initiate the Lucknow pact in 1916. Nonetheless, the evil intention of the Hindus and the Indian National congress made him realize that Muslims would remain in misery unless they strive hard for a separate independent state. Further, Quaid, therefore, burnt the midnight oil and took great pains for the establishment of Pakistan. his struggles for the glory of Muslims, such as his resignation from Congress, presenting his fourteen points, getting his only article “Time and Tide” published, describing the necessity of a separate state, certainly, proved to be fresh air for the suffocated soul of the then Muslims of the subcontinent. Besides, he envisioned to establish a democratic political structure in the country, and a secular state, ensuring the basic rights of all people of all religions. Apart from this, after the independence, Quaid Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah also encountered many challenges, such as managing refugee influx and rising economic and administrative issues. However, his intellect made the country grow socially and economically despite the hurdles.
“Brotherhood, equality and fraternity of man—these are all the basic points of our religion, culture and civilization. And we fought for Pakistan because there was a danger of denial of these human rights in this sub-continent.”Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
The situation of the then Muslims of the sub-continent
After the war of independence, Muslims’ condition become deplorable as the British considered them solely responsible for the revolt and made them deprive of their basic social, political, economic, and, above all, educational rights. Therefore, Muslims emerged as a backward nation, legging in every walk of life. Besides, the foundation of the Indian National Congress raised hope for the suppressed Muslims, for it claimed itself as a representative of all the nations of the subcontinent. However, Muslims’ hopes soon shattered into pieces when Congress ignored Muslims’ constitutional rights. Nevertheless, in the period of constant darkness, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah appeared on the horizon and took the Muslims of the subcontinent from the depth of darkness to the height of glory.
The role of Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the years 1916-1947
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah indeed played a crucial role for the uplift of the then-Indian Muslims. Although earlier, he was an adamant believer in the Hindu-Muslim unity against the British Raj, which led him to preside over the Lucknow pact, the Hindus’ anti-Muslim policy and evil intention for Muslims made Quaid-e-Azam resign from the membership of the Indian National Congress and realize the need for a separate state for the glory and prestige of the Muslim nation. Next, he presented the historic fourteen points in reply to the controversial Nehru report, trying to overpower and overshadow the Muslims’ constitutional demands. Further, Quaid-e-Azam, for sure, played a way back to revive the spirit and motivation of the Muslim League after losing the elections of 1937.
Additionally, he showed his intention for a separate state and the future of India in his only article “Time and Tide”, published in the British media. Likewise, on the twenty-third of March 1940, he strengthened the Pakistan movement and said “Muslims are not a minority but a nation by every definition. By all the cannons of the international law, we are a nation.” And his intellectual and hard work, undoubtedly, assisted the Muslim league to acquire the majority of Muslim seats in the subcontinent in 1945, which lead to independence in 1947.
The political system of Pakistan, envisioned by Quaid-e-Azam
Quaid-e-Azam wanted to establish a modern democratic state laying its basics on the Islamic principles and values, which assure social economic justice and the rights of minorities. ‘The fact can also be proven by Quaid’s statement, “Pakistan was to be a modern democratic state that derived its ethical formation from Islam, where the source of guidance and inspiration for constitution-making and governance is going to be Islam.”’ Moreover, as he analyzed the western constitutional system with deep eyes, he preferred Islamic principles and envisioned to enforce sharia law in the country. For instance, he said, “I cannot understand a section of people who deliberately want to create mischief and make propaganda that the constitution of Pakistan will not be made on the basis of Shariat. Islamic principles today are as applicable as they were thirteen-hundred years ago. “
The challenges which Quaid-e-Azam encountered as a Governor-General of Pakistan
Having got an independent Muslim state, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah started to serve the nation as a governor-general. Whilst his tenure, he encountered many challenges, such as managing the refugees’ influx, dealing with the unequivocal economic and military forces’ division, and addressing the administrative crisis which put the newly born state in many troubles. However, Quaid, with his intellect, dedication, and hard work handled the situation smartly and caused the country to make progress. To make the economy strengthen, he laid the foundation of the State Bank of Pakistan. At last, owing to Quaid-e-Azam’s efforts, dedication, and tireless work, Pakistan sustained on the horizon despite unsurpassable social, political, administrative, and economic problems.
Critically, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah believed in Hindu-Muslim unity; therefore, he burnt the midnight oil to make both nations work together for the glory of the people of the subcontinent and against British rule. Nevertheless, the Hindus and the Congress’ hypocrisy and their evil intention behind them overshadowed Quaid’s efforts. Consequently, not only did he resign from the Indian National Congress but also worked against the idea of joint nationalism because he thought that unless Muslims work with the Hindus, they would suffer in all spheres of their lives. Besides, his constant efforts for a separate state, where he envisioned to enforce modern democracy under the Shariah Law, went successful. However, India’s struggles to undo Pakistan caused the Muslim nation to incur plenty of trouble, but Quaid’s intellectual and dedication assisted the country to sustain on the horizon.
To conclude, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah proved to be the light at the end of the tunnel for the demoralized Muslims of the subcontinent. He played a very significant role in the years 1916-1947 for the rise of Muslims and made them work for their glory with their heart and soul. Further his attractive personality, communication skills, and tireless work led Muslims to acquire a separate independent state, Pakistan. Also, he took great pains for the development and progress of the country and robbed the enemy’s efforts, trying tooth and nail to undo Pakistan. At last, Quaid-e-Azam, without any shadow of a doubt, sacrificed his entire life to revitalize Muslim’s lost glory and honor.
“Pakistan does not mean freedom and independence only, but the Islamic ideology as well which has to be preserved.”-Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah
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