Written By Hammad Nasir
Thesis Statement: Amid the increasing military engagements by the UN in the form of its peacekeeping missions in several African and some Middle Eastern countries; the world seems gradually moving away from peace as the crisis remains unsolved in the said regions.
1. Understanding the U.N Military Engagements
(A) Peacekeeping Missions
(B) Military Observer Groups
(C) Supervisions of a combative situation through representatives for peace.
2. Analyzing U.N military engagements in Africa and how it failed to lead the world towards peace
(A) Unsettled crisis in Congo, Sudan and Somalia
(B) Still surviving crisis of Aouzou Strip in Chad and Libya
3. How the UN military engagements in the Middle East are preventing the world from attaining ultimate peace
(A) UN observation group’s presence in Lebanon and its failure to end the Lebanese conflict with Israel
(B) UN observation group in Syria and its failure to end the Syrian crisis.
4. UN military engagement in Asia has failed to lead the world towards peace
(A) UN Military Observer Group between Pakistan and India has not been able to end the boundary crisis in the region
(B) UN Military Observer Group has failed to solve the border dispute between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
Despite the repeated military engagements led by the U.N. in South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East; the body has failed to lead the world towards peace. The crisis remains unresolved or mostly resurface in African and Middle Eastern regions thus undermining global peace.
U.N was established following the 2nd World War to establish the world security regime and to ensure long-lasting peace in the new global order. To achieve this rhetoric, the U.N devised different ways to combat the elements threatening world security or peace. One method is its military engagement. That comes in the form of the Peacekeeping mission and Military Observer groups deployed across the world states facing some sort of security or peace crisis. The performance of such military engagements led by the U.N is however not seen as greater success. There are factors that reveal that as the military engagements of the U.N are increasing, the world keeps on drifting from the path of peace and peaceful coexistence. The apparent manifestations supporting this assertion lie in the failure of U.N led peacekeeping missions and military observer groups to ensure peace in African countries of Congo, Sudan, and Somalia. Further, the failure of U.N military engagement in ending the Middle Eastern crisis has clearly depicted the situation of deteriorating world peace amid the futile efforts.
Beginning with the effort to understand the military engagements of the UN, it can be assessed that in what possible ways the international body is making a futile effort to keep peace in the world. The first manifestation of military engagement of the UN is named as UN Peacekeeping Missions. These are the military missions carrying soldiers from the armies across the world. The missions are deployed by the UN for the sake of securing peace in a region or country of crisis. UN military engagement in the form of Peacekeeping Missions has been mostly deployed in the African continent. Besides that, these missions have served in the chaotic Middle Eastern situations. But the question remains about their performance and role in securing global peace and security. These military engagements of the UN are often criticized because the troops in Blue Helmets remains unable to ensure peace in a chaotic situation. Further, they have been found indulged in certain war crimes along with showing indifference to the genocide of any group in the area under their supervision. Their work thus remains a military engagement of the UN that is failing to lead the world towards peace.
The second manifestation of UN military engagements is the Military Observer Groups deployed in the regions where disputes can erupt any time owing to the unsettled territorial or political problems. These groups lack authority in the areas of their observation. States often override the suggestion and recommendations of the Military Observer Groups thus undermining world peace. The third manifestation of UN military engagement comes in the shape of sending special representatives to the combative areas of the world. The representatives endeavor to bring the opposing factions to some terms for the sake of the world peace.
UN military engagements in Africa speak clearly that how this endeavor is proving a failure in keeping the world on the right track of peace. UN has deployed UN Peacekeeping Missions in the African countries of Sudan, Somalia, Chad, Libya, Congo, and Angola. Many missions have been completed but the situation in Africa remains miserable. Peace is still a far cry in that underdeveloped continent. Sudan remains in conflict and Libya presents a bleak picture of collapse. Further, the problem over the Aouzou Strip between Chad and Libya remains unresolved despite the years of UN military engagement there. All these factors bring Africa as an obstruction in the way of ultimate peace and the world remains in chaos.
Speaking of the UN military engagements in the Middle East further elaborates on how world peace is at stake amid the increasing peacekeeping efforts. The Middle East, which is home to the contemporary world crisis, is under the military observation of the UN. The military role of the body in this region can be currently seen in Syria. UN has special rapporteur on Syria’s situation. But it seems that the regional powers like Russia, Iran, and Turkey are more powerful there than the UN itself. This keeps the military engagement of the UN in the Middle East undermined thus hampering global peace. Similarly, the UN Military Observer Group in Lebanon shows its weakness to end the hostility of Lebanese groups with Israel and its regional supporters. This situation prevents the world from attaining ultimate peace thus making the UN military engagements ineffective.
As far as the military engagements of the UN in South Asia are concerned, they also represent a bleak picture. The traditional boundary disputes between Pakistan and Afghanistan are unsettled. UN-appointed its military observer group over the issue but still Afghanistan does not recognize the Durand Line with Pakistan. Similarly, the border rift between India and Pakistan was also brought into consideration by the UN Military Observer Group. But even in this case, the body remains a failure to settle the problem. War loom in South Asia owing to these disputed borders thus leading the whole world towards chaos rather than peace.
In brief, UN military engagements in the form of Peacekeeping Missions and Military Observer Groups in Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East have marked little success in leading the world towards peace. In fact, the failure of UN military engagements has undermined the global peace and security by giving the states more leverage to settle their own issues through non-pacific and combative means which has resulted in more was and more conflict across the borders and within the countries.
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