What are the social, economic and political consequences of unchecked population growth? Discuss in context of Pakistan. | For CSS and PMS Aspirants

What are the social, economic and political consequences of unchecked population growth? Discuss in context of Pakistan. | For CSS and PMS Aspirants

Written By Laraib Rafique Rai

Overpopulation has become a daunting challenge for the entire world. It is a multidimensional issue, for it instigates many other political, social and economic problems in society. Pakistan, along with other issues, is confronting overpopulation. She is the worlds’ 5th densely populated country; the number is constantly rising. According to the world bank’s report in 2019, Pakistan’s population is 216.6 million with a growth rate of 3.6 per cent annually. Unfortunately, the situation is quite alarming, for the country lacks resources to satisfy such a large number of people. Consequently, the unchecked population growth has appalling implications on Pakistan’s social-political and economic development.

Consequences of unchecked population growth in Pakistan

The rampant expansion of population propagates many social, political and economic implications in Pakistan, which are discussed below.

Economic implications of overpopulation

A growing population comes with an increased demand for food, water, housing, energy, healthcare, education, transportation and more. However, Pakistan is not in the state of providing a quality life to its residents. The country has an insufficient supply of consumable resources, but the demand is much higher. Pakistan is an agricultural country. However, to accommodate the rising number of people, most of the arable land is converted into housing societies, which has created a shortage of food supply. Food scarcity has further affected economic development in two ways. First, an inadequate supply of food has led to undernourished people, which lowered their productivity. Second, Food deficiency compelled the government to import food grains; placing an unnecessary strain on the foreign exchange resources. Overpopulation is also breeding illiteracy in the country. Pakistan, unfortunately, spends a meagre budget on education. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is among the 12 countries that spent less than 2 per cent of their GDB on the education sector. Currently, in Pakistan-an estimated 22.8 million children aged 5-16 are out of school-representing 44% of the total population (UNICEF).

Furthermore, the drastic growth of the population is responsible for unemployment. Also, It has lowered the per capita income. Consequently, it has diminished the saving capacity of people, which, in turn, has hindered capital formation. In parallel, it has perpetuated poverty and deprivation in the country by increasing residents’ living costs. Another considerable impact of the immense growth of people is Brain drain. Owing to the lack of opportunities, society’s skilful faction has headed towards the developed countries in pursuit of better livelihood. Above all, overpopulation has straddled the country’s economic growth.

Political Implications Of Overpopulation

Overpopulation poses several political implications in Pakistan. The government is inept at providing a quality life to its huge populace. Thus, the deficiency of food, water, health facilities, education-along with unemployment, inflation and soaring poverty- has played havoc in the country. The situation is getting outrageous. As the people, out of frustration, get indulged in unlawful activities.

Consequently, the crime rate has shot up strikingly. Similarly, unequal distribution of resources has established a sense of deprivation among the masses. As a result, the country’s people get themselves exploited by the non-state actors, against the state. To meet the demands of an increasing population, the country’s debt ratio is increasing; affecting its foreign policy. In the same way, there is a huge trust deficit between the public and the government, which has hampered the country’s political stability.

Social Implications of Overpopulation in Pakistan

Overpopulation has evoked formidable social implications for Pakistan.it has erupted the social fabric of the country by lowering the quality of life. People suffer from various diseases owing to the unavailability of basic health facilities. Also, the illiteracy rate is quite high, and the quality of education is compromised, which results in unemployment. Despite this, uncontrolled population growth leaves dreadful impacts on the environment, such as environmental pollution, climate change, depletion of resources, and pandemics. In Pakistan, smog, extreme weather conditions followed by extended summer, scarcity of water, and lethal viral infections are prominent. Henceforth, the extensive population growth has indirectly escalated extremism, terrorism, and mushroomed up society’s moral degradation.

Critical Analysis

Pakistan, like other developing countries, is exposed to the savage threat of overpopulation. The issue is dynamic and harmful for the country’s economic, political and social stability. The resources are inadequate to last the necessities of people. For example, water resources are on the verge of darkening in Pakistan; unfortunately, no substantial steps have been taken to overcome it. Thus, a huge gap has been generated between the demand and supply of goods and services. Apart from that, a majority of the public is non-productive and a burden on the economy. Additionally, the incompetence of the government to generate employment opportunities is the icing on the cake. In cut short, it is right to say, overpopulation is the mother of all the social evils prevalent in the land of pure.


To conclude, Pakistan is a country, enriched in natural resources but poorly managed. The government must act proactively to curb the menace of overpopulation. The policymakers should initiate family planning campaigns nationwide to spread awareness among the masses. Besides that, generating employment opportunities is first and foremost obligation of the government. Similarly, a proper natural resource management system should be introduced under the Federal Government’s supervision to augment the preservation of natural resources. Also, more damns are needed to be constructed to meet public demands. Moreover, technological advancement in agriculture is a morsel of hope for the Land of pure as it can boost up the agricultural sector. The Billion Tree Tsunami is a promising project to improve the classified forests’ ecosystem and restore the degraded land in the country. Moreover, like all other problems, overpopulation is also curable. In this regard, awareness plays a pivotal role today; it would decide humanity’s future on earth. If the awareness spreads and people become familiar with the consequences and causes of overpopulation, they would work unitedly for a better future.

CSS 2022 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers

The following are the CSS 2022 Pakistan Affairs solved past papers questions. These questions have been evaluated and checked by Pakistan’s top Pakistan Affairs and Current Affairs coaches, who are either lecturers or officers and scored the highest marks in this paper. They include Miss Saba Baloch (CSS-2021), Miss Aimeen Mirza (CSS 2018), Miss Nirmal Hasni (DD NAB), Sir Rameez Ch. (Lecturer & Deputy Director), and Miss Zaineb Azam (the highest scorer – 76). Moreover, these questions have been attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students who have been scoring the highest marks for years.

Q.1Discuss The Issues And Mistrust In US-Pakistan Relations After The Withdrawal Of The U.S. Troops From Afghanistan.
Q.2What Is The Volume Of The Grants, Aids And Loans In Pakistan’s Economy In The Last Ten Years To Stimulate Growth? Discuss
Q.3Why Did Pakistan Join Western Defense Pacts? What Cost It Had To Pay For It. Explain
Q.4Every State Designs Its Foreign Policy On National Interests Rejecting Feelings And Emotions. Why Did Pakistan Prefer Emotions, Feelings, And Ideology In Its Foreign Policy? Also, Analyze Its Impacts
Q.5Evaluate The Factional Politics Of The Early Years (1947-58) And Their Impact On The Democratic Process Of Pakistan.
Q.6Discuss The Federal Structure Of 1973 Constitution Of Pakistan After 18th Amendment. Why criticism On 18th Amendment Started Recently?
Q.7Discuss The Role Of Regional And Nationalist Political Parties In Pakistani Politics? How Far These Parties Are Necessary For The Political System?

CSS 2021 Solved Pakistan Affairs Questions

Q.2Enumerate the measures adopted by Pakistan to spotlight on the plight of Kashmiri people in the Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir after 5th August 2019.
Q.3Now Outdated Question
Q.4How CPEC phase II will galvanize industrialization and employment in Pakistan?
Q.5Discuss the Significance of Renewable Energy Resources for Pakistan.
Q.6How Pakistan should combat the 5th generation war?
Q.7Political Stability is mandatory for economic prosperity in Pakistan. Elaborate.
Q.8Critically Evaluate the Evolution of Muslim Separate Identity in the Sub-Continent.

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