CSS Blogs / Css Essays / Daily Write-Ups

What are the social, economic and political consequences of unchecked population growth? Discuss in context of Pakistan. | For CSS and PMS Aspirants

What are the social, economic and political consequences of unchecked population growth?

Written By Laraib Rafique Rai

Overpopulation has become a daunting challenge for the entire world. It is a multidimensional issue, for it instigates many other political, social and economic problems in society. Pakistan, along with other issues, is confronting overpopulation. She is the worlds’ 5th densely populated country; the number is constantly rising. According to the world bank’s report in 2019, Pakistan’s population is 216.6 million with a growth rate of 3.6 per cent annually. Unfortunately, the situation is quite alarming, for the country lacks resources to satisfy such a large number of people. Consequently, the unchecked population growth has appalling implications on Pakistan’s social-political and economic development.

Consequences of unchecked population growth in Pakistan

The rampant expansion of population propagates many social, political and economic implications in Pakistan, which are discussed below.

Economic implications of overpopulation

Growing population comes with an increased demand for food, water, housing, energy, healthcare, education, transportation and more. However, Pakistan is not in the state of providing a quality life to its residents. The country has an insufficient supply of consumable resources, but the demand is much higher. Pakistan is an agricultural country. However, to accommodate the rising number of people, most of the arable land is converted into housing societies, which has created a shortage of food supply. Food scarcity has further affected economic development in two ways. First, an inadequate supply of food has led to undernourished people, which lowered their productivity. Second, Food deficiency compelled the government to import food grains; placing an unnecessary strain on the foreign exchange resources. Overpopulation is also breeding illiteracy in the country. Pakistan, unfortunately, spends a meagre budget on education. According to the International Crisis Group, Pakistan is among the 12 countries that spent less than 2 per cent of their GDB on the education sector. Currently, in Pakistan-an estimated 22.8 million children aged 5-16 are out of school-representing 44% of the total population (UNICEF).

Furthermore, the drastic growth of the population is responsible for unemployment. Also, It has lowered the per capita income. Consequently, it has diminished the saving capacity of people, which, in turn, has hindered capital formation. In parallel, it has perpetuated poverty and deprivation in the country by increasing residents’ living cost. Another considerable impact of the immense growth of people is Brain drain. Owing to the lack of opportunities, society’s skilful faction has headed towards the developed countries in pursuit of better livelihood. Above all, overpopulation has straddled the country’s economic growth.

Political Implications Of Overpopulation

Overpopulation poses several political implications in Pakistan. The government is inept at providing a quality life to its huge populace. Thus, the deficiency of food, water, health facilities, education-along with unemployment, inflation and soaring poverty- has played havoc in the country. The situation is getting outrageous. As the people, out of frustration, get indulged in unlawful activities.

Consequently, the crime rate has shot up strikingly. Similarly, unequal distribution of resources has established a sense of deprivation among the masses. As a result, the country’s people get themselves exploited by the non-state actors, against the state. To meet the demands of an increasing population, the country’s debt ratio is increasing; effecting its foreign policy. In the same way, there is a huge trust deficit between the public and the government, which has hampered the country’s political stability.

Social Implications of Overpopulation in Pakistan

Overpopulation has evoked formidable social implications for has erupted the social fabric of the country by lowering the quality of life. People suffer from various diseases owing to unavailability of basic health facilities. Also, the illiteracy rate is quite high, and the quality of education is compromised, which results in unemployment. Despite this, uncontrolled population growth leaves dreadful impacts on the environment, such as environmental pollution, climate change, depletion of resources, and pandemics. In Pakistan, smog, extreme weather conditions followed by extended summer, scarcity of water, and lethal viral infections are prominent. Henceforth, the extensive population growth has indirectly escalated extremism, terrorism, and mushroomed up society’s moral degradation.

Critical Analysis

Pakistan, like other developing countries, is exposed to the savage threat of overpopulation. The issue is dynamic and harmful for the country’s economic, political and social stability. The resources are inadequate to last the necessities of people. For example, water resources are on the verge of darkening in Pakistan; unfortunately, no substantial steps have been taken to overcome it. Thus, a huge gap has generated between the demand and supply of goods and services. Apart from that, a majority of the public is non-productive and a burden on the economy. Additionally, the incompetence of the government to generate employment opportunities is the icing on the cake. In cut short, it is right to say, overpopulation is the mother of all the social evils prevalent in the land of pure.


To conclude, Pakistan is a country, enriched in natural resources but poorly managed. The government must act proactively to curb the menace of overpopulation. The policymakers should initiate family planning campaigns nationwide to spread awareness among the masses. Besides that, generating employment opportunities is first and foremost obligation of the government. Similarly, a proper natural resource management system should be introduced under the Federal Government’s supervision to augment the preservation of natural resources. Also, more damns are needed to be constructed to meet public demands. Moreover, technological advancement in agriculture is a morsel of hope for the Land of pure as it can boost up the agricultural sector. The Billion Tree Tsunami is a promising project to improve the classified forests’ ecosystem and restore the degraded land in the country. Moreover, like all other problems, overpopulation is also curable. In this regard, awareness plays a pivotal role today; it would decide humanity’s future on earth. If the awareness spreads and people become familiar with the consequences and causes of overpopulation, they would work unitedly for the better future.

About the writer:

Miss Laraib Rafique Rai is one of the sterling students of Sir Syed Kazim Ali, one of the eminent Grammarian in the world. Under his proficient supervision, she is enrolled in course of Online Creative English Writing and learning Basic to Advanced Grammar. She has done Master in Political Science and is profound in writing articles on several topics- like national and international issues, Current Affairs, Science, Fiction, and many more.

Name of the Student: Miss Laraib Rafique Rai
Qualifications: Masters in Political Science
Total Articles/Blogs: 1
English Coach: Sir Syed Kazim Ali
Course Taken: Creative English Writing & Article Writing

Like other competitive students, If you have a story to tell, guidance to help, knowledge to educate, or a perspective that can help CSS aspirants daily, welcome to CSSPrepForum. It is free to get your opinions, viewpoints, judgements, and thinking published, whether it is a blog, article, essay, application, letter, precis, comprehension, MCQs, or anything that helps competitive youth of Pakistan. CSSPrepForum is a place that let you connect with thousands of competitive readers, and helps your voice heard across the community. Let’s start writing and get your voice heard to those who are looking for you. Email Your Write-ups at

At CSSPrepForum, we upload solved papers, essays, and current affairs blogs daily. To read the best with us, let’s connect with us

Articles and news that you might love to read!

1 Comment

  • Naila Ahshfaq
    February 2, 2021 at 5:22 pm

    Beautify explained and I love your way of writing. It is indeed the way to attempt a question. Can you please solve other questions for us?


Leave a Reply

error: Content is protected !!