The elections of 1937 | An Immediate cause for the demand of a separate state by the Muslims of British India

The elections of 1937 | An Immediate cause for the demand of a separate state by the Muslims of British India

Written by Rukhsana Khalid

The elections of 1937 exposed the dichotomy in promises and practices of the Congress with the All India Muslim League (AIML) and other minorities. After assuming power, congress pursued aggressive policies against the Muslims, as it tried to settle scores of the Hindus’ subjugation by the Muslims back in history. This attitude of the Hindus compelled the Muslims to depart their ways rather than working in a coalition with the Congress. The major causes of separating ways are discussed hereunder.

1) The problem of setting up the government:

In elections, the Muslim League (ML)  had to face defeat whereas Congress got an absolute majority placing unjust preconditions to establish a coalition government. The major conditions included the dissolution of the Muslim League’s parliamentary board, and the inclusion of existing ML’s members in the Congress binding them to abide by the Congress’ code of conduct. If the ML had accepted the conditions, this would have meant its virtual demise changing the political landscape of British India once and for all. Also, Congress had demanded to curtail the governor’s powers and to limit the British government’s interference in provincial affairs before the establishment of Congress Ministries; so, it made the picture further clarification regarding the bleak future of the Muslims.

2) Bande Matram and Taranga – National song and flag respectively:

After assuming power, congress started showing its bigoted moves. At first, it declared Taranga as the national flag of Hindustan posing the Hindus as the successors of the British. In addition, it stated that there was no third party in the Indian Sub- Continent other than the British and the Hindus neglecting the Muslims. Secondly, Nehru’s prejudiced move of declaring Bande Matram as the national song and to sing it before forming a meetup was against the sentiments of Muslims. The song was nothing but propaganda against the Muslims in the backdrop of Sirajudal’s defeat in  Bengal. In response, Quaid-e-Azam, including some organizations, objected to Nehru’s assertion saying it as the declaration of war by the Hindus against the Muslims; however, Nehru remained firm to his stance. So, it made the Muslims aware of Congress’s vicious intentions to subdue Muslims.

3) Wardha and Vidiya Mander Educational schemes:

 These schemes were started with the purpose to convert Muslims into Hindus. Under the scheme, the syllabus was changed in a way that it portrayed the Hindu religion supreme as compared to Islam, and compulsion was imposed to bow before goddess Saraswati during school hours. Also, it emphasized to fade the concept of the two-nation theory. These schemes were part of a bigger political plot to devoid the new generation of Muslims for their love of Islam, past glory, language, and cultural values. Also, It was an attempt to pale the importance of Islam before the Hindu religion. Therefore, Quaid-e-Azam outrightly rejected the scheme on 2 July 1939. Besides, Moulana Ahmad Saeed- a supporter of the Congress- expressed disapproval and asked to launch a disobedient moment if Congress went to implement the scheme further.

4) The Urdu language dispute and Pirpur and Shareef report:

Congress adopted the “kill Urdu policy” by declaring Hindi as the most common and national language of India. The idea was supported by Congress and refuted by the Muslim League. Moreover, in schools and official meetings, Hindi was posed as the sole medium of instruction. When the Muslims asked to keep everything in Urdu as well, Gandi said that it was a wastage of time and money to have a separate medium of instruction for minorities. It inflamed the Muslims’ sentiments. After the resignation of congress Ministries in 1939, two reports- Pirpur and Shareef- were drafted to highlight atrocities by Hindus.

Critical Analysis:

Although Congress promised to work for the betterment of the Indian Subcontinent, it failed to keep its promise. It was an awakening move for the Muslims to stand and speak up for their rights else they had to live with Hindus for the rest of their lives.  It Compelled the major political heads, like Quaid-e-Azam, to change their stance from living together to achieving a separate state for the Muslims. Therefore, the elections of 1937 proved to be a turning point in the life of the Muslims of the sub-continent.


To sum up, the elections of 1937 proved to be an immediate cause of separation for the Muslims of British India. The congress, due to its glaring victory in the elections, took itself as the successor of the Britishers leaving the Muslims and minorities rot in hell. Also, the adoption of discriminatory policies by Congress and portraying Hinduism and Gandhi as a demigod for the Indian Sub-Continent enraged the Muslims and other minorities. All these circumstances had made the Muslims demand a separate homeland.

CSS 2022 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers

The following are the CSS 2022 Pakistan Affairs solved past papers questions. These questions have been evaluated and checked by Pakistan’s top Pakistan Affairs and Current Affairs coaches, who are either lecturers or officers and scored the highest marks in this paper. They include Miss Saba Baloch (CSS-2021), Miss Aimeen Mirza (CSS 2018), Miss Nirmal Hasni (DD NAB), Sir Rameez Ch. (Lecturer & Deputy Director), and Miss Zaineb Azam (the highest scorer – 76). Moreover, these questions have been attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students who have been scoring the highest marks for years.

Q.1Discuss The Issues And Mistrust In US-Pakistan Relations After The Withdrawal Of The U.S. Troops From Afghanistan.
Q.2What Is The Volume Of The Grants, Aids And Loans In Pakistan’s Economy In The Last Ten Years To Stimulate Growth? Discuss
Q.3Why Did Pakistan Join Western Defense Pacts? What Cost It Had To Pay For It. Explain
Q.4Every State Designs Its Foreign Policy On National Interests Rejecting Feelings And Emotions. Why Did Pakistan Prefer Emotions, Feelings, And Ideology In Its Foreign Policy? Also, Analyze Its Impacts
Q.5Evaluate The Factional Politics Of The Early Years (1947-58) And Their Impact On The Democratic Process Of Pakistan.
Q.6Discuss The Federal Structure Of 1973 Constitution Of Pakistan After 18th Amendment. Why criticism On 18th Amendment Started Recently?
Q.7Discuss The Role Of Regional And Nationalist Political Parties In Pakistani Politics? How Far These Parties Are Necessary For The Political System?

CSS 2021 Solved Pakistan Affairs Questions

Q.2Enumerate the measures adopted by Pakistan to spotlight on the plight of Kashmiri people in the Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir after 5th August 2019.
Q.3Now Outdated Question
Q.4How CPEC phase II will galvanize industrialization and employment in Pakistan?
Q.5Discuss the Significance of Renewable Energy Resources for Pakistan.
Q.6How Pakistan should combat the 5th generation war?
Q.7Political Stability is mandatory for economic prosperity in Pakistan. Elaborate.
Q.8Critically Evaluate the Evolution of Muslim Separate Identity in the Sub-Continent.

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