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Issues of national integration in Pakistan and suggestions for its promotion |For CSS & PMS Aspirants

Issues of national integration in Pakistan and suggestions for its promotion |For CSS & PMS Aspirants

Written By Laraib Rafique Rai

National integration is the key determinant for the socio-political and socio-economic development of a country. By creating a sense of unity among the people belonging to different religions, caste, creed, and culture, it kindles the concept of nationhood among them. The countries success by leaps and bounds, which are well integrated. Whereas, disintegration leads the nations towards the downfall. Pakistan, since inception, is facing the issues of national disintegration that created a sense of deprivation among its people. Earlier, in 1971, the disintegration caused the separation of east and west Pakistan. Woefully, after decades, Pakistan is still confronting multiple issues of national integration; hence, leaving the nation in disarray.

Causes of National Disintegration in Pakistan:

There are numerous causes of national disintegration, Pakistan is currently facing, including miss interpretation of Ideology, lack of good governance, economic disparity, regional biases, ethnic and lingual issues have created a havoc in the country. However, Some major issues are discussed below.

a)Wrong interpretation of Ideology.

Pakistan’s ideology is firmly rooted in Islamic identity. However, its misinterpretation has bred an anarchic situation nationwide by giving birth to very sensitive issues; hence, making the society intolerant. Eventually, the situation distracted the policymakers from other core issues of concern in the country and hampered its socio-economic growth. Such issues are the root cause of dividing the nation along religious-ethnic lines.

b) Lack of good governance.

Poor governance is one of the key drivers behind the disintegration in the land of pure. Unequal provision of opportunities and rising social evils, like unemployment, poverty, and extremism, have eroded the country’s social fabric. Similarly, corruption, delayed justice and lack of accountability are responsible for society’s moral decay. As a result, a gulf is created between the government and the public. The gap ,henceforth, is exploited by sub-nationalists, sponsored by their foreign abettors.

c) Economic Disparity and provincial biases.

Economic disparity and provincial biases are the significant challenges posed to the national integration of Pakistan. the structural discrepancies and unequal distribution of resources among all the provinces have evoked a great sense of deprivation among the people, particularly in Sindh, Balochistan and tribal areas. Water scarcity and energy crisis have exacerbated the region’s prosperity and development ; thus,it engendered alienation among the population and triggered militancy with serious repercussions affecting national integration.

d) Ethnic, Cultural and Linguistic heterogeneity.

Ethnic, cultural and lingual heterogeneity are the major attributes of Pakistani society. Unacceptance of cultural and lingual heterogeneity has resulted in the ethnic divide in the country. Furthermore, the problematic relations between centre and provinces and a constant power struggle between different ethnic groups are the major reasons for unrest in the country. Likewise, there is no concept of centralised education in Pakistan, which has weakened the foundation of national integrity here. Moreover, Pakistan has a history where subsequent handling of the lingual issue had caused the dismemberment of its eastern wing. The issue is still persistent in society; thus,  steers the country towards disintegration.

The way forward for the Promotion of National Integration in Pakistan:

For the promotion of national integration in Pakistan, concrete steps are needed to be taken by the policymakers. Some of the ways forward are discussed below.

A ) Correct Interpretation of the Ideology of Pakistan

The assurance of national integration in Pakistan is only possible if the government institutions correctly interpret Pakistan’s ideology. Islamic State system, which can provide a guideline to eradicate various social evils from society, is the gist of the country’s ideology. Therefore, the policies are not only needed to be designed according to the current requirements but also incorporate the country’s ideological bases.

B) Dispensation of Good Governance.

Dispensation of good governance bears the fruit of national integration. Competent institutions and provision of equal opportunities can do wonders in uniting the nation. Similarly, creating new employment avenues and eradicating social evils can bring harmony and peace to the country.

C ) Eliminating Economic and Provincial biases.

National integrity of Pakistan lies in the art of eliminating economic and lingual disparities from society. It is imperative to provide equal opportunities to each province for its growth and development. The government should start new projects in the areas, like Sindh, Balochistan, and FATA, to meet their water and energy demands. It is a need of an hour to fill the gap between the government and the masses by creating more jobs, introducing attractive economic policies and promoting business, like a cottage industry, in the country.

D ) Acceptance to The Ethnic, Cultural, and Linguistic heterogeneity.

Pakistan is the country comprising on diversified ethnic, cultural and lingual groups. It is equally important to accept their heterogeneity and create an affable environment in the country. The medium of education must be incorporated with all the regional languages to make the communication easy. Similarly, all ethnic and cultural values are must be given respect all around the country. these measures can play a vital role in national integration of Pakistan.

Critical Analysis:

National integration is the essence of the socio-political and socio-economic development of a country. It unites the people of diverse religious, cultural or ethnic groups under the banner of unitedness. Unfortunately, unlike other developed nations, Pakistan is divided on religious, cultural, ethnic and linguistic grounds. Even in past, the land of pure has borne the brunt of disintegration in the form of dismemberment from its eastern wing. Sadly, the issue is bleak and raising its head in different areas. Therefore a pragmatic approach by the government institutions is imperative to break the vicious circle of disintegration from Pakistan.


To sum up,  some serious challenges, like bad governance and sectarian divide, posed to the national integration of Pakistan. These issues must be addressed through a realistic approach. Similarly, the education system and the madrassa system needs reforms. Furthermore, equal distribution of resources and opening new avenues of employment are the dire need for the country’s prosperity and progress. Likewise, the most deprived areas, such as Balochistan and FATA need more attention by the government to get back in the mainstream. However, every grey cloud has a silver lining, with the hope for the betterment of Pakistan, there are some positive steps taken to overcome the deprivation of the people; still, there is a lot more to do in this regard. Moreover, national integration is not a one time exercise; rather, it’s a continuous process. Perhaps, extensional approach towards challenges and priority to national interest would determine the national integrity of Pakistan.

About the writer:

Miss Laraib Rafique Rai is one of the sterling students of Sir Syed Kazim Ali, one of the eminent Grammarian in the world. Under his proficient supervision, she is enrolled in course of Online Creative English Writing and learning Basic to Advanced Grammar. She has done Master in Political Science and is profound in writing articles on several topics- like national and international issues, Current Affairs, Science, Fiction, and many more.

Name of the Student: Miss Laraib Rafique Rai
Qualifications: Masters in Political Science
Total Articles/Blogs: 2
English Coach: Sir Syed Kazim Ali
Course Taken: Creative English Writing & Article Writing

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1 Comment

  • Samad Raza
    February 3, 2021 at 6:14 pm

    kya bat hai Laraib.


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