Issues of national integration in Pakistan and suggestions for its promotion |For CSS & PMS Aspirants

Issues of national integration in Pakistan and suggestions for its promotion |For CSS & PMS Aspirants

Written By Laraib Rafique Rai

National integration is the key determinant for the socio-political and socio-economic development of a country. By creating a sense of unity among the people belonging to different religions, caste, creeds, and cultures, it kindles the concept of nationhood among them. The countries succeed by leaps and bounds, which are well integrated. Whereas, disintegration leads the nations towards downfall. Pakistan, since its inception, is facing the issues of national disintegration that created a sense of deprivation among its people. Earlier, in 1971, the disintegration caused the separation of east and west Pakistan. Woefully, after decades, Pakistan is still confronting multiple issues of national integration; hence, leaving the nation in disarray.

Causes of National Disintegration in Pakistan:

There are numerous causes of national disintegration, Pakistan is currently facing, including miss interpretation of Ideology, lack of good governance, economic disparity, regional biases, ethnic and lingual issues that have created havoc in the country. However, Some major issues are discussed below.

a)Wrong interpretation of Ideology.

Pakistan’s ideology is firmly rooted in Islamic identity. However, its misinterpretation has bred an anarchic situation nationwide by giving birth to very sensitive issues; hence, making society intolerant. Eventually, the situation distracted the policymakers from other core issues of concern in the country and hampered its socio-economic growth. Such issues are the root cause of dividing the nation along religious-ethnic lines.

b) Lack of good governance.

Poor governance is one of the key drivers behind the disintegration of the land of the pure. Unequal provision of opportunities and rising social evils, like unemployment, poverty, and extremism, have eroded the country’s social fabric. Similarly, corruption, delayed justice and lack of accountability are responsible for society’s moral decay. As a result, a gulf is created between the government and the public. The gap, henceforth, is exploited by sub-nationalists, sponsored by their foreign abettors.

c) Economic Disparity and provincial biases.

Economic disparity and provincial biases are the significant challenges posed to the national integration of Pakistan. the structural discrepancies and unequal distribution of resources among all the provinces have evoked a great sense of deprivation among the people, particularly in Sindh, Balochistan and tribal areas. Water scarcity and energy crisis have exacerbated the region’s prosperity and development; thus, it engendered alienation among the population and triggered militancy with serious repercussions affecting national integration.

d) Ethnic, Cultural and Linguistic heterogeneity.

Ethnic, cultural and lingual heterogeneity are the major attributes of Pakistani society. The Unacceptance of cultural and lingual heterogeneity has resulted in the ethnic divide in the country. Furthermore, the problematic relations between centres and provinces and a constant power struggle between different ethnic groups are the major reasons for unrest in the country. Likewise, there is no concept of centralised education in Pakistan, which has weakened the foundation of national integrity here. Moreover, Pakistan has a history where subsequent handling of the lingual issue had caused the dismemberment of its eastern wing. The issue is still persistent in society; thus,  steers the country towards disintegration.

The way forward for the Promotion of National Integration in Pakistan:

For the promotion of national integration in Pakistan, concrete steps are needed to be taken by the policymakers. Some of the ways forward are discussed below.

A ) Correct Interpretation of the Ideology of Pakistan

The assurance of national integration in Pakistan is only possible if the government institutions correctly interpret Pakistan’s ideology. Islamic State system, which can provide a guideline to eradicate various social evils from society, is the gist of the country’s ideology. Therefore, the policies are not only needed to be designed according to the current requirements but also incorporate the country’s ideological bases.

B) Dispensation of Good Governance.

Dispensation of good governance bears the fruit of national integration. Competent institutions and the provision of equal opportunities can do wonders in uniting the nation. Similarly, creating new employment avenues and eradicating social evils can bring harmony and peace to the country.

C ) Eliminating Economic and Provincial biases.

The national integrity of Pakistan lies in the art of eliminating economic and lingual disparities from society. It is imperative to provide equal opportunities to each province for its growth and development. The government should start new projects in areas, like Sindh, Balochistan, and FATA, to meet their water and energy demands. It is a need of an hour to fill the gap between the government and the masses by creating more jobs, introducing attractive economic policies and promoting business, like a cottage industry, in the country.

D ) Acceptance to Ethnic, Cultural, and Linguistic heterogeneity.

Pakistan is a country comprising of diversified ethnic, cultural and lingual groups. It is equally important to accept their heterogeneity and create an affable environment in the country. The medium of education must be incorporated with all the regional languages to make communication easy. Similarly, all ethnic and cultural values are must be given respect all around the country. these measures can play a vital role in the national integration of Pakistan.

Critical Analysis:

National integration is the essence of the socio-political and socio-economic development of a country. It unites the people of diverse religious, cultural or ethnic groups under the banner of unitedness. Unfortunately, unlike other developed nations, Pakistan is divided on religious, cultural, ethnic and linguistic grounds. Even in past, the land of pure has borne the brunt of disintegration in the form of dismemberment from its eastern wing. Sadly, the issue is bleak and raising its head in different areas. Therefore a pragmatic approach by the government institutions is imperative to break the vicious circle of disintegration from Pakistan.


To sum up,  some serious challenges, like bad governance and sectarian divide, posed to the national integration of Pakistan. These issues must be addressed through a realistic approach. Similarly, the education system and the madrassa system needs reforms. Furthermore, equal distribution of resources and opening new avenues of employment are the dire need for the country’s prosperity and progress. Likewise, the most deprived areas, such as Balochistan and FATA need more attention from the government to get back into the mainstream. However, every grey cloud has a silver lining, with the hope for the betterment of Pakistan, there are some positive steps taken to overcome the deprivation of the people; still, there is a lot more to do in this regard. Moreover, national integration is not a one time exercise; rather, it’s a continuous process. Perhaps, extensional approach towards challenges and priority to national interest would determine the national integrity of Pakistan.

CSS 2022 Solved Pakistan Affairs Past Papers

The following are the CSS 2022 Pakistan Affairs solved past papers questions. These questions have been evaluated and checked by Pakistan’s top Pakistan Affairs and Current Affairs coaches, who are either lecturers or officers and scored the highest marks in this paper. They include Miss Saba Baloch (CSS-2021), Miss Aimeen Mirza (CSS 2018), Miss Nirmal Hasni (DD NAB), Sir Rameez Ch. (Lecturer & Deputy Director), and Miss Zaineb Azam (the highest scorer – 76). Moreover, these questions have been attempted on the same pattern taught by Sir Syed Kazim Ali to his students who have been scoring the highest marks for years.

Q.1Discuss The Issues And Mistrust In US-Pakistan Relations After The Withdrawal Of The U.S. Troops From Afghanistan.
Q.2What Is The Volume Of The Grants, Aids And Loans In Pakistan’s Economy In The Last Ten Years To Stimulate Growth? Discuss
Q.3Why Did Pakistan Join Western Defense Pacts? What Cost It Had To Pay For It. Explain
Q.4Every State Designs Its Foreign Policy On National Interests Rejecting Feelings And Emotions. Why Did Pakistan Prefer Emotions, Feelings, And Ideology In Its Foreign Policy? Also, Analyze Its Impacts
Q.5Evaluate The Factional Politics Of The Early Years (1947-58) And Their Impact On The Democratic Process Of Pakistan.
Q.6Discuss The Federal Structure Of 1973 Constitution Of Pakistan After 18th Amendment. Why criticism On 18th Amendment Started Recently?
Q.7Discuss The Role Of Regional And Nationalist Political Parties In Pakistani Politics? How Far These Parties Are Necessary For The Political System?

CSS 2021 Solved Pakistan Affairs Questions

Q.2Enumerate the measures adopted by Pakistan to spotlight on the plight of Kashmiri people in the Indian occupied Jammu and Kashmir after 5th August 2019.
Q.3Now Outdated Question
Q.4How CPEC phase II will galvanize industrialization and employment in Pakistan?
Q.5Discuss the Significance of Renewable Energy Resources for Pakistan.
Q.6How Pakistan should combat the 5th generation war?
Q.7Political Stability is mandatory for economic prosperity in Pakistan. Elaborate.
Q.8Critically Evaluate the Evolution of Muslim Separate Identity in the Sub-Continent.

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